Relative dating of the pennsylvanian period
The oldes tknown fossils are The magnetic north pole has changed throughout the history of Earth and its geographical coordinates are known in different geological eras.
Some minerals have magnetic properties and are directed towards the north magnetic pole when in aqueous suspension, for example clays.
Can be dated samples that were protected from sunlight and heat to more than 500 ° C, otherwise the “clock” is reset as the energy naturally releases.
The ESR (electro spin resonance) involves irradiating the sample and measuring the energy absorbed by the sample depending on the amount of natural radiation which it has been subjected during its history.
It is a complex method which you can get more information here.
The name Carboniferous refers to coal-bearing strata that characterize the upper portion of the series throughout the world.
Early Carboniferous (Mississippian) world is characterized by Laurussia, a series of small cratonic blocks that occupied the Northern Hemisphere, and Gondwana, an enormous landmass made up of present-day South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, and the Indian subcontinent in the Southern Hemisphere.
Lithospheric plate movement brought the continents close together on one side of the globe.
Upland areas of the continental interiors underwent substantial erosion during the Carboniferous.
Shallow seas occupied the continental shelf margins surrounding the continents.
Fringe areas of Carboniferous continents may very well have become the continental interiors of the present day.