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Y 175 Western Electric Equipped Radio Broadcasting Sta- tions now in opera- tion from Coast to Coast. 116 (regarding fre- quency deviations) even though it does not officially become effective until next year. (Continued on next page) OFFICIAL RADIO CENSUS BY STATES (Complete to October 15, 1931) No. of State Families Per Family Radios Per cent Alabama 592,530 4.5 56,491 9.5 Arizona 106,630 4.1 19,295 18.1 Arkansas 439,408 4.2 40,248 9.2 California 1,618,533 3.5 839,991 51.9 Colorado 268,531 3.9 101,376 37.8 Connecticut 389,596 4.1 213,821 54.9 Delaware 59,295 4.0 27,183 45.8 District of Columbia 126,014 3.9 67,880 53.9 Florida 377,823 3.9 58,446 15.5 Georgia 654,009 4.5 64,908 9.9 Idaho 108,515 4.1 32,869 30.3 Indiana 844,463 3.8 351,540 41.6 Iowa 636,905 3.9 309,237 48.6 Kansas 488,055 3.9 189,527 • 38.8 Kentucky 610,288 4.3 111,452 18.3 Louisiana 486,424 4.3 54,364 11.2 Maine 198,372 4.0 77,803 39.2 Maryland Massachusetts 386,087 4.2 156,465 42.9 1,024,527 4.2 590,105 57.6 Michigan 1,183,157 4.1 599,196 50.6 Minnesota 608,398 4.2 287,880 47.3 Mississippi 472,354 4.3 25,475 5.4 Missouri 941,821 3.9 322,252 37.4 Montana 137,010 3.9 43,809 32.0 Nebraska 343,781 4.0 164,324 47.8 Nevada 25,730 3.5 7,869 30.6 New Hampshire 119,660 3.9 53,111 44.4 New Mexico 98,820 4.3 11,404 11.5 North Carolina 645,245 4.9 72,329 11.2 North Dakota 145,382 4.7 59,352 40.8 Ohio 1,700,877 3.9 810,767 47.7 Oklahoma 565,348 4.2 121,973 21.6 Oregon 267,690 3.6 116,299 43.5 Rhode Island 165,811 4.2 94,594 57.1 South Carolina 366,265 4.8 28,007 7.7 South Dakota 161,332 4.3 71,361 44.2 Tennessee 601,578 4.4 86,229 14.3 Texas 1,383,280 4.2 257,686 18.6 Utah 116,254 4.4 47,729 41.1 Vermont 89,439 4.0 39,913 44.6 Virginia 530,092 4.6 96,569 18.2 Washington 426,019 3.7 180,229 42.3 West Virginia 374,646 4.6 87,469 23.4 Wisconsin 713,576 4.1 364,425 51.1 Wyoming 57,218 3.9 19,482 34.0 October 15, 1931 • BROADCASTING Page 15 Miniature But Sensitive Microphone Makes Air Debut in Philco Program Moving Coil Principle Used in Electro-Dynamic Instrument Devised for Stokowski THE ELECTRO-DYNAMIC mic- rophone, midget of the mike family and newest product of the research laboratories, has made its air de- but.
Page 2 Also made by Western Electric — radio telephone equipment with which many cities are furnishing their police departments. Due to these two regulations, 1932 will find recep- i tion conditions in this country in- finitely improved over previous years. The microphone, employing the moving coil principle, picked up the strains of Leopold Stokow- ski's Philadelphia Orchestra on Oct. The program was transmitted over a 71-station hookup of the Columbia Broadcasting System through an electrical circuit at every point of which new equip- ment had been installed, involving in several cases the use of ap- paratus never previously linked up for a broadcast.
Page 4 BROADCASTING • October 15, 1931 The NEWS MAGAZINE of Jp MTHE FIFTH ESTATE VOL. So, al- though the United States today stands far out in front in broad- casting, we must be on the qui vive for constant improvement and must live with the realization that the splendid transmitting devices and accessories of 1931, now re- garded as the last word in radio equipment, may in a few years be looked back upon as haywire. The monitoring engineer will be stationed in this booth, with a desk panel in front of him, bearing the galvanometer which shows the variation in power passing through the circuit.
In our technical research labora- tories, our scientists have brought forth remarkable creations for I voice transmission. But an average number of persons per family is struck in each state separately.
♦ ♦ ♦ market Strategetically and centrally located to serve the rich Piedmont section of the Carolinas, concentra- tion point of wealth and population. Rich, responsive, compact, it offers tremendous possibilities to manufacturer and advertising agency. ■ We offer to any serious advertiser and his agency full cooperation in studying whether broadcasting has possible effectiveness in a specific merchandising plan — holding the initial en- deavor to test proportions. In the realm of I mathematics, the fundamental principles and natural laws are not only fixed but definitely known. SIZE IS CONVENIENT "ITS SMALL size, as compared with the dimensions of microphones now in use, makes it more conven- ient to mount in any desired loca- tion in the hall in a relatively in- conspicuous manner; "It is used at a considerable distance from the amplifier, so that the latter is put in a special loca- tion on the stage of the hall for these broadcasts." The signals picked up by the microphone will pass to a control booth on the stage but out of sight of the audience.
Lacking only in the razor-edged competition of metropolitan markets, the Piedmont Carolinas offer large rewards to aggressive invaders of commerce! • Our experience is based on a five year history — five years that have been productive of facts — innumerable and enlightening. S ALT Z MAN Chairman, Federal Radio Commission AS TOLD TO SOL TAISHOFF Calling Our Broadcasting Best in World, "The General" Urges Programs Improve Apace with the Technical Art THE FEDERAL RADIO COMMISSION Seated (left to right) — Commissioners Ira E. Mathematical problems can accord- ingly be definitely solved. Although this structure is only seven feet square, it weighs one and one-half tons and is sound insulated with especially worked out acoustic properties. This equip- ment, according to CBS, is capable of delivering, if necessary, two and a half times as much power with- out distortion and is far superior to the old type apparatus.
C, OCTOBER 15, 1931 • S^tifcopy THE NEWS MAGAZINE OF THE FIFTH ESTATE - ^ if Operates on the most favorable " WAVE LENGTH has full time and is recognized as the standard of con- sistent program quality and clear dependable reception. Our factories are producing the best radio equip- ment of the world. The third inadequacy, and prob- ably the most noteworthy, rested in the hesitancy the census takers encountered among many families when the radio question was asked.
* Offers Intensive coverage in New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. Transmitters, for example, range from small 100 Wall to huge 50 Kilowatt models. The hearty cooperation of progressive, far-seeing broadcast- ers in complying with the provis- ions of General Order No. The home of the writer, for example, was not even canvassed in the 1930 census.
"The first of these objections, and perhaps the most fallacious, is that practical application of syn- chronization, as proposed experi- mentally by the Columbia System, sounds the death knell of the inde- pendent and chain-affiliated sta- tions. POTENTIAL AUDIENCES BUT we find, in the states thus far reported, that there is an average of 4.1 persons per family.In (Continued on page 2S) October 15, 1931 • BROADCASTING Page 5 Columbia Scouts Independents' Fears of Replacement by System of Boosters Network Officials Deny Any Plan for National Chain in Seeking Station in Washington COLUMBIA'S proposal to erect a booster station in Washington, with power of 250 watts and synchron- ized to the clear channel of WABC, its New York key, does not mean the death of independent or net- work-affiliated stations, according to a statement by Harry C. The statement was made in con- nection with the withdrawal of Thomas Stevenson's letter of pro- test to the Federal Radio Commis- sion, as executive director of the Associated Broadcasters of Am- erica, that the proposed Washing- ton booster was the first step to- ward a nation-wide system that would free the network from de- pendence on independent station affiliations. Spear- man, formerly assistant general counsel of the Commission and now with the firm of Littlepage, Little- page & Spearman. Roughly, the northeastern, mid- dle western and far western states show the highest totals and highest ratios to date.The hearing on the CBS appli- cation is scheduled for Oct. Engi- neers of the Commission, CBS engi- neers and others interested in the booster project will testify as to its feasibility. The network was impelled to seek (the synchronized outlet in Washington because of its inability to place enough of its programs in Washington over WMAL. ; KFNF, Shen- andoah, la.; KFOR, Lincoln, Neb.; KFOX, Long Beach, Cal. Generally, it may be Radio Call Saves Life A RADIO call for volunteers recently saved the life of James Wotten, of Richmond, Va.There is a class that wants high grade educational programs to the exclusion of all others, while an- other class wants nothing of that sort. However, what- ever the nature of the program selected, the broadcaster must con- stantly strive to improve its qual- ity. Census Reveals Radio's Hold on Country (Continued from Page 15) What, then, do the figures show ?Improvements in program quality should keep pace with im- provements in technical operation. The percentage of American homes that are radio-equipped in the states thus far reported runs slightly over 33, or a little better than one out of every three homes.
The telephone company of today even with its wonderful equipment still receives complaints. But with one out of every three homes having radios, with all the seasonal and diurnal attractions and distractions radio meets, with all the counter-attrac- tions that radio must combat, with all the "intellectual aversions" oft expressed toward radio — with all these indisputable factors retard- ing the building of a constant and assured radio audience, there still is tremendous audience!