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Greek transcriptions from the Seleucid period which reflect the pronunciation of Late Babylonian represent u by o, e.g., οζον = uzun ("ear of"), and u by ω, e.g., νωρ = nūr ("light of ").Diphthongs are monophthongized, e.g., ‡ayn- mūt ("death").(The double dagger, ‡, indicates the reconstructed form.) Pseudo-diphthongs, such as Old Babylonian nawrum ("bright"), probably represent nawirum.
Middle Babylonian is attested in letters, economic and official documents, and a few literary documents.Most of the other original material also comes from this region, but texts have been found further afield: in *Elam , northern Syria, and eastern Anatolia (Asia *Minor).It is not clear whether Old Akkadian is the parent of the later Akkadian dialects.While the size of the corpus of Middle Babylonian texts found in Mesopotamia proper is moderate, geographically this dialect (and variations of it) is the most widely spread and was used all over western Asia during the second millennium The Akkadian material from the archives of Bogazköy and Ras Shamra ( *Ugarit ) are written in local forms of Middle Babylonian, as are the letters of El *Amarna found in Egypt, which, however, originated in Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia.The wide diffusion of Akkadian during the period was due to its use as a diplomatic language.
The name is derived from akkadūm, the relative adjective of dé = *Akkad (biblical אַכַּד), the capital of the Sargonic Empire (c.