The shrinkage strain was measured for all specimens for a period of 120 days.
Based on the experimental results, it was found that SCC mixture containing 20% cement replacement of CKD exhibited the highest mechanical strength compared to other SCC mixes and NVC mix as well.
Four mixes incorporating cement kiln dust with partial cement replacement of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were produced and compared with a control mix of Normally Vibrated Concrete (NVC).
Superplasticizer was used to increase the flow-ability of SCC mixes.
The design differences were just enough to allow the Class 70 engines to haul an extra 10 or 12 tons over the steepest of the mountain passes.
When the Class 70s arrived, the D&RG engines were assigned to specific engineers.
However, they didn’t stray far from the heavier grades of Marshall Pass and Cerro Summit in the first years.
The D&RG mainline of 1881 was resplendent of territories consisting of grades in excess of 3 percent, and crews were pushing toward new ground every day.
It was observed that the volumetric changes of specimens were directly proportional to the increase of the cement replacement ratio.
by Jeff Johnson In 1881, the biggest narrow gauge locomotives on the Denver & Rio Grande Railway were twelve little 2-8-0s that became a classic on the 3-foot rails of Colorado.
Partial replacement of cement in SCC with cheap available industrial by-product could produce environmentally durable concrete with similar properties of normal concrete.
In the current research, SCC was produced by blending Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) with cement in different ratios.
A relatively ‘newer’ design to the D&RG, these little engines proved that they were more than up to the task of helping to expand the young railroad.