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At 2,228 metres (7,310 ft), Mount Kosciuszko on the Great Dividing Range is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland.Even taller are Mawson Peak (at 2,745 metres or 9,006 feet), on the remote Australian territory of Heard Island, and, in the Australian Antarctic Territory, Mount Mc Clintock and Mount Menzies, at 3,492 metres (11,457 ft) and 3,355 metres (11,007 ft) respectively.The population of 25 million Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 (as Nieuw-Holland) and subsequently anglicised.Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts.The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country".Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime.It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area.
The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration and settlement of other regions.
Since the election of the Whitlam Government in 1972, Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas, with the Coral Sea lying off the Queensland coast, and the Tasman Sea lying between Australia and New Zealand.
The world's smallest continent is located in Western Australia.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia.
Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states and several territories.
After World War II Australia encouraged immigration from mainland Europe.